The ways in which parents raise their children are diverse. However, there are many similarities in the parenting styles which experts have identified and grouped into various categories. The aim of any parenting style should be to provide maximum support to the child for healthy growth and development.
The following four parenting styles are common throughout the world.
Authoritative is considered to be one of the most effective parenting styles. In authoritative parenting, the parents have high expectations from their children but are responsive to the needs of their children and maintain a positive relationship with them. Authoritative parents make rules for their children and make them understand the reasons behind every rule. The children are also given some level of independence to make their own decisions.
The children of authoritative parents have robust mental health, tend to be good in academics, have high self-esteem and capable of making decisions.
There are many differences between authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles. Authoritarian parents have high expectations from their children but are not responsive to the needs of their children. They strictly enforce discipline and use punishment as a tool to make the children adhere to rules. There is a communication gap between authoritative parents and their children. The reasons for the rules set for the children are not explained.
Children raised under authoritarian parenting are shy and fearful, have low self-esteem, exhibit poor academic capabilities and find it difficult to take decisions independently. Mental problems are also common in such children.
Uninvolved or neglected parenting style provides excessive freedom to children. This is one of the most harmful parenting styles. In this type of parenting, the parents have no expectations from their children and are cut off from the lives of their children. The parents are not aware of the needs of their children and have no understanding of the happenings in their children’s lives. Uninvolved parents do not devise any rule for their children and allow them to do whatever they like.
Uninvolved parenting style may be adopted deliberately by the parents or can be a result of mental issues or due to preoccupation with too much work to care for the children. Parents not interested in parenting can also choose to neglect their children.
Children with uninvolved parents tend to suffer from mental and self-esteem issues. They are also at risk of getting addicted to drugs, alcohol and other harmful substances. They may also exhibit behavioral problems and perform poorly in academics.
This is also known as indulgent parenting. Permissive parents are very responsive to the needs of their children but have negligible expectations from them. They may set some rules for their children but do not enforce them strictly. Permissive parents don’t like to upset their children even if the children are in the wrong. Permissive parents do not guide their children and behave like friends.
Children with permissive parents are in-disciplined and have inflated egos. They don’t like authority which leads to problems in schools and colleges. Selfishness and poor social skills also characterize such children. Such children can also be unhealthy because there is no restriction on eating junk food.